The U.S. Department of Agriculture conducted a referendum among U.S. softwood lumber manufacturers and importers from May 23 through June 10, 2011. USDA sent ballots to companies that shipped or imported more than 15 million board feet in 2010. Sixty-seven percent of those participating in the referendum—representing 80 percent of the volume of softwood lumber represented in the referendum—favored implementation of the check-off.

USDA conducted a subsequent referendum between April 17 and May 14, 2018 and will conduct further referenda every five to seven years thereafter, to determine whether softwood lumber manufacturers for the U.S. market favor the continuation of the Order.  In the 2018 referendum 78% of those participating in the referendum—representing 94% of the volume of softwood lumber represented in the referendum—favored continuing the check-off.

The referendum shall be deemed successful if it is favored by a majority of U.S. manufacturers and importers voting in the referendum who also represent a majority of the volume of softwood lumber represented in the referendum, and who paid assessments during the year prior to the referendum.